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02 Management of battery for automobiles

Management of the lifespan of automobile battery

  • The lifespan of battery terminates as the capacity gradually becomes degraded during use and differs depending on the method of management.
  • Symptoms at the terminal stage of the lifespan of the battery
    • Rotation of the starter motor
      suddenly becomes weakened
    • At the time of adjusting
      of the accelerator
    • When the brightness
      of the headlamp changes
  • If the symptoms for the termination of the lifespan of the battery appear, maintenance is necessary to eliminate the factors that can shorten the lifespan by charging the battery. If the symptoms are not reduced even if it is charged, battery should be replaced with a new one as the lifespan has terminated.

Tips on the management of the lifespan of battery

  • Maintain the cleanliness of the areas around the battery

    • If white powder forms on the battery terminals, the functions of the battery will be lowered. Accordingly, keep the battery terminals clean with brush, etc.
  • Management of temperature within the battery

    • If the temperature within the engine room is too high or low, the lifespan of the battery will be shortened. Accordingly, park indoor if the car has to be parked for a long time.
  • Prevention of overcharging of battery

    • Do not use headlamp and radio for prolonged period of time while the engine is stopped. If the insufficient charging state of the battery is continued due to the use of electric power by electrical devices, the lifespan of the battery will be shortened.
    • If the automobile is not being used for long time, make sure to start the engine at least once a week to charge the discharged battery voltage.
    • If the battery is used continuously when the indicator for the condition of the battery is white, the battery will become overly discharged. Therefore, regularly scheduled inspection is needed.

Procedures for inspection of the battery

  • Keep the areas around the battery clean

    • External breakage
    • Wearing out and deformation
    • External soiling
    • Damages to the terminals
    • Leakage of electrolyte
  • Specific gravity & voltage

    • Inspection of indicator
    • Inspection of the battery voltage
    • Inspect quantity of electricity
    • Inspect specific gravity of electrolyte
  • Load test

    • Inspection of (OCV) voltage
    • Inspection of the entire system
    • Load test
  • Determination and measures to be taken

    • Supplementation and charging
    • Final inspection
    • Replacement of battery
  • 1. Inspection of the exterior

    • If the exterior or the terminals of the battery is broken or damaged, it may become the cause of damages to the automobile due to the leakage of electrolyte. In such case, battery needs to be replaced.
    • If there is crack or deformation in the battery, thereby resulting in severe reduction in the volume of electrolyte or if there is trace of leakage, replace with new battery. In order to prevent recurrence, it is important to exhaustively investigate and eliminate the cause.
    • If the battery is soiled, clean with clear water thoroughly.
  • 2. Inspection of indicator

    • Check the condition of the battery as indicated by the indicator built into the cover.
Green
  • Charging condition is good
  • Specific gravity of more than 1,220
  • condition of more than 70% at -18℃
White
  • Discharged state
  • Specific gravity of less than 1,220
Red
  • Inadequate electrolyte
  • Inspect battery
Black
  • Pollution of the indicator (adsorption of carbonized substance)
  • Inspect battery
  • 3. Inspection of electric quantity

    • Inspection of electric quantity in accordance with voltage(OCV) and specific gravity of electrolyte
Capacity 0% 50% 70% 100%
Specific 1.80 / 25℃ 1.108 / 25℃ 1.220 / 25℃ 1.280 / 25℃
Gravity 11.5 ~ 11.6V 12.1 ~ 12.2V 12.4V 12.7 ~ 12.8V
Voltage indicator White Color Discoloration (Green-White) Green

4. Load test

Measurement of battery voltage
  • Connect the (+) clip of the tester to the (+) terminal of the battery and the (-) clip to the (-) terminal.
  • At this time, if the indicator needle of the tester is pointing at t2V (Green), the battery is normal and can be used
  • If t2V ↓, recharge the battery
Generator test
  • Connect the clip of the tester as illustrated din the Diag. 1
  • After having started the automobile, if the indicator needle on the tester points to Green color section (OK), it is normal (good)
  • If the needle points to the Red color section below, charging is insufficient and if to the section above, it is in overly charged state
Inspection of dark current
  • Remove the (-) terminal cable.
  • Set the ammeter to A or mA (precaution for burning of the fuse)
  • Connect the detached (-) cable to the (+) side of the ammeter.
  • Place (-) side of the ammeter to the (-) terminals to measure the dark current value
  • In the event of occurrence of dark current in excess of the standard, detach each of the fuses in the fuse box in order and re-measure the dark current.
Battery LOAD voltage test
  • Connect the clips of the tester as illustrated in the Diag. 1.
  • Turn the switch of the tester ON (Load) (※ Duration of the application of the load should be less than 5 seconds for the test).
  • At this time, if the indication needle points to the Green area (MAC) in front of the Yellow area (WEAK), the battery load voltage is in good condition (Diag. 2).
  • If the needle continues to drop without stopping in the Yellow area (WEAK), recharge the battery.
  • If the needle continues to drop without stopping in the Yellow area (WEAK) when retested after having recharged the battery, replace the battery

Replacement of the battery

  • 01Preparation of the battery
    Prepare the battery.
  • 02Detachment of the negative terminals
    Detach the negative terminals.
  • 03Detachment of the positive terminals
    Detach the positive terminals.
  • 04Detachment of bottom clamp
    Detach the bottom clamp.
  • 05Detachment of battery
    Detach the battery.
  • 06Assembly in reverse order(01)
    Assemble in the reverse order (01).
  • 07Assembly in reverse order(02)
    Assemble in the reverse order (02).
  • 1. Selection of the battery

    • If the capacity of the existing battery installed is the same or if electrical equipment has been added, choose battery with bigger capacity as needed.
  • 2. Detaching the old battery

    • Turn the engine off and take the key out of the ignition box, and close all the doors. Maintain the state in which all of the electrical devices in the automobile is not being used.
    • Detach the (-) cable first before detaching the (+) cable.
    • Loosen the fixation device for the battery (top or bottom) and separate the old battery for the installation plate of the vehicle.
    • Thoroughly clean the connecting cable and the corroded area of the installation plate of the vehicle with brush.
  • 3. Installing new battery

    • Accurately confirm the directions of the terminals of the battery to be newly installed prior to transporting it.
    • Place the battery on the installation place by keeping it horizontal and fix each of the sections with appropriate force.
    • The length of the cable used for connection with the terminals of the battery should be slightly slack.
    • Installation order should be in the reverse of the detachment order. Connect the (+) cable first before connecting the (-) cable.
    • Make sure to check the (+) and (-) polarity accurately before connecting the cables. If the connection is made reversely, it may become the cause of damages to the electrical devices in the vehicle.
    • Make sure to completely tighten the fixation screws after the connection of the cable in order to ensure that there is no movement of the battery while driving.

Precautions while handling battery

  • Store the battery in locations with low temperature, low humidity and good ventilation.
  • Do not tilt or flip over the battery while transporting it, and take precautions against damages due to impact and fall.
  • Wear protective gear appropriate for the eyes, face and hand (rubber glove and glass) when handling battery.
  • As battery contains sulfuric acid, take precautions in handling. If it comes in contact with skin or garment, wash off with water immediately.
  • Keep the battery away from flame and fire, do not handle it in closed space but in locations with good ventilation.
  • Battery is to be used exclusively in ignition of the automobile engine. If it is used for other purpose, the hydrogen gas generated from the battery can be the cause of fire and/or rupture. Make sure to use it for appropriate application.

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